The key to page one applies to this appendix and is partially reproduced below with additions in blue. A prior reading of page one is recommended–
B – Except as noted, all year dates begin with Abib 1 (March (Gregorian) or April (G)) of the year shown on the basis of Ex 12:1- 13:4 (see esp. 12:2 and 13:4). For example, 1446 BC is Abib 1 (Mar(G)), 1446 BC to Abib 1 (Mar(G)), 1445 BC. Furthermore, from Nu 28:11-14 (NIV) (see esp. 11 & 14), each month of this year begins with a day of a new moon.* In some years, because a twelve month year in this calendar falls short of a solar year and because the year must, nevertheless, remain closely tied to the seasons (the seasons being inextricably linked by the Bible to events fixed by this calendar, such as the gathering of crops and the Feast of Booths in the seventh (Sept/Oct) month (Lev 23:33-39)), a thirteenth month must be added. Each day of this year is reckoned from sunset (Gen 1:1-5) in Jerusalem. It should be further noted that, although similar, this calendar and the modern Jewish calendar are not to be equated.
* The time of the biblical new moon is assumed in this writing to be at least closely approximated by the time of conjunction of what is an invisible moon with the sun, rather than defined, as is sometimes believed, by the first crescent. Reasons for this assumption include a) the fact that the former moon is a representation of the old covenant of the law (compare Gen 1:16; Rev 12:1-6; Col 2:11-17; and Heb 8:1-13) beginning with Moses’ first day on Mount Sinai (Ex 19:1-6 NIV), while the first crescent, which often occurs two days after the new moon, is clearly in parallel with the beginning of the enunciation of the law which began two days later on that same mountain (Ex 19:7-20:17) in agreement with the observance of the new moon, rather than the first crescent, on the first of every month and b) at the end of its orbit, a moon that has become invisible represents the disappearance of the old covenant (compare again Gen 1:16; Rev 12:1-6; Col 2:11-17; and Heb 8:1-13) and fits the scriptures’ indication that the day of a new moon is a day of rest (see, for example, Amos 8:4-6).
E1- Designates data by Fred Espenak from the “SIX MILLENNIUM CATALOG OF PHASES OF THE MOON” spanning the years 2000 BC to 4000 AD found at http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/phasescat/phasescat.html. Note that this data employs the astronomical dating system in which . . . 2 = 2 AD, 1 = 1 AD, 0 = 1 BC, -1 = 2 BC, -2 = 3 BC, etc., as well as the Julian calendar for dates prior to 1582 AD.
E2 – Designates data by Fred Espenak, AstroPixels.com, from the “AstroPixels Calendar Date Converter” at http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/calendarconverter.html. [This credit was changed 11/27/18.]
M- Designates my own calculation of a day of a new moon prior to 2000 BC using : ASTRONOMICAL ALGORITHMS, second edition, by Jean Meeus, published by Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, Va., with corrections as of August 10, 2009
G, J, JD – Designate Gregorian, Julian, and Julian day dates, respectively.
A chronology of the day of the Lord:
1) Abib 15, 2021 AD – The day of the Lord and the great tribulation begin*
God prophesied through Gabriel that Christ would be “cut off” after 69 “weeks” (Dan 9:25-26), which concluded at Christ’s birth. This event, the crucifixion, occurred on a Passover (John 18:28-32), Abib 14 (Lev 23:5), when Christ had confirmed the new covenant for a period of 1260 days, a period beginning with his baptism and concluding with a three year ministry. It is on the day after a Passover that the 1260 days (“a time and times and half a time” (Rev 12:14), or 3 ½ “times”, or ½ of 7 “times”, or 1/2 “week”) of the great tribulation will begin, during which the new covenant will be confirmed, as John was told, through “two witnesses” (Rev 11: 1-7), completing a special 7, the second half clearly coinciding with the second half of the seventieth of Dan 9:27 (NET) when the antichrist will also confirm a covenant.
* The simultaneity of the beginnings of the great tribulation and the day of the Lord can be established through a comparison of 2 Thess 2:1-4; Dan 11:36-12:7; Rev 13:5-10; and Mt 24:15-21
2) Tishri 4, 2024 AD – The 1260th and final day of the great tribulation and the martyrdom of the two witnesses (Rev 11:3-10)
The new moon of March 13, 2021 at 10:21 UT [E1] gives Abib 15, 2021 AD, the beginning of the great tribulation and the day of the Lord, as March 26/27, 2021 AD (G) . Furthermore, from March 27, 2021 CE (G) to Sept. 6, 2024 CE (G) are 1259 days [E2], or 1260 days, inclusive. Therefore, given the new moon of Sept. 3, 2024 at 1:56 UT [E1]*, the 1260th day of the great tribulation is Tishri 4, 2024 AD.
* From Amos 1:1; 8:8-9, during the reign of Uzziah, which was in the 8th century BC, the prophet Amos prophesied of an earthquake and the setting of the sun at noon two years before their occurrence. The effect of the latter upon the calculation of the time of new moons preceding that event is related below. It should be noted at this point, however, that, from the context of the passage, it seems likely that this prophecy is an example, among others, of a prophecy that will have at least one further fulfillment. Specifically, it seems quite possible that the sun will go down at noon on the day(s) of one or both of two great quakes spoken of in Rev 6:12-17 and 16:17-21 (which would be a quake at the beginning of the day of the Lord (Abib 15, 2021 AD) and the shaking of Babylon (Tishri 17, 2024 AD)), with any such event causing the calculation of the time of a new moon thereafter to be early by about 6 hours. Nevertheless, since no dates would be affected by these events, no adjustments in the given new moon data need be considered, except in the Kislev 19 section, below.
3) Tishri 8, 2024 AD – The two witnesses rise after 3 ½ days (Rev 11:11-12)
4) Tishri 10, 2024 AD – The return of Christ (first stage); The first resurrection begins; A “rapture” of the church (see sidebar)
From Lev 25:8-10, God commanded that a horn be sounded in the seventh sabbatical year of a jubilee period on the tenth day of the seventh month and, according to 1 Thess 4:16-17, “the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord.”
5) Tishri 18, 2024 AD – The return of Christ (second stage) with his saints
Christ, after a seven day wedding celebration (see the foreshadowings of Gen 29:16-28 and Jdg 14:1-12) in heaven, will return with his bride on the 18th day of the seventh month, in the middle of the Feast of Booths (compare Lev 23:33-34; John 7:1-14; Mal 3: 1-3).
Note: The return of Christ follows the burning of Babylon (Rev 18:21-19:16), an event foreshadowed by its previous fall to the forces of Cyrus on Tishri 16, a Babylonian reckoning from the first crescent, 539 BC. This would seem to yield a date for the fall of Babylon, in terms of the biblical calendar, of Tishri 17 or 18, 539 BC.
6) Tishri 21, 2024 AD – The seventh and last day of the Feast of Booths (Lev 23:33-43), the beginning of the millennial kingdom, and the conclusion of the first resurrection (Rev 20:4-6)
Now on the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink. He who believes in Me, as the Scripture said, ‘From his innermost being will flow rivers of living water.’ ” – John 7:37-38
7) Marcheshvan 4, 2024 AD – The 1290th day from the beginning of the great tribulation
“From the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1290 days.” – Dan 12:11*
As established above, the great tribulation begins on Abib 15, or March 26/27, 2021 AD (G) and Mar 27, 2021 CE (G)+ 1289 days gives Oct. 6, 2024 CE (G) [E2]. Given the new moon of Oct. 2, 2024 at 18:49 UT [E1]**, the 1290th day from the beginning of the great tribulation is Marcheshvan 4, 2024 AD (not Marcheshvan 5, since Oct 2, 2024 at 18:49 UT will be after sunset in Jerusalem).
Furthermore, according to 1 Cor 15:25, “[Christ] must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet.” Given the new moon of Apr 4, -541 at 22:31 UT [E1] (also after sunset in Jerusalem), Abib 15, 542 BC fell on April 18/19 (J), while April 19, 542 BCE (J) + 1289 days gives Oct. 29, 539 BCE (J) [E2], the day in which Cyrus walked victoriously into evil Babylon, placing that land beneath his feet and foreshadowing, symbolically, the placing of enemies beneath the feet of Christ. It is likely that, on the 1290th day, the final putting of enemies beneath the feet of Christ will once again be foreshadowed, possibly through an entry of Christ into fallen Babylon.
* Compare with Dan 9:27 (NET) and Mt 24:15-21. After people in Judea have a very brief opportunity to escape on Passover, Abib 14, the 1260 days of the great tribulation will begin on Abib 15.
8) Kislev 19, 2024 AD/2025 AD – The 1335th day from the beginning of the great tribulation/The inheritance in this earth is divided
“How blessed is he who keeps waiting and attains to the 1335 days!” – Dan 12:12
Mar 27, 2021 CE (G) + 1334 days gives Nov 20, 2024 CE (G) [E2]. Given the new moon of Nov. 1, 2024 at 12:47 UT [E1], the 1335th day from the beginning of the great tribulation is Kislev 19, 2024 AD.* Soon after Cyrus conquered Babylon, he issued a decree permitting the Jewish captives to return to their land (Ezra 1:1-11). Furthermore, the new moon of March 24, 1944 at 11:36 UT [E1] gives Abib 15 of that year as April 6/7 (G), while April 7, 1944 CE (G) + 1334 days gives Dec 2, 1947 CE (G) [E2], the third day from a U.N. resolution (Nov. 29, 1947 AD (G), several hours after sundown in Jerusalem) calling for a new Jewish state and free Jewish migration. Given the new moon of Nov 12, 1947 at 20:01 UT [E1], also after sunset in Jerusalem, this day was Kislev 20, 1947 AD.** It is likely that Christ will issue a decree on the 1333rd day and that, on Kislev 19, 2024 AD, the 1335th day, a great phase of the end time ingathering into the land will begin (Jer 23:3-8), with the division of the inheritance taking place the following year, 2025 AD.
* With an adjustment to Jerusalem time and an addition of about 6 hours for a postulated further fulfillment, on the day of the shaking of Babylon, of the Amos 8:8-9 prophecy, the Nov 1, 2024 new moon occurs past sunset in Jerusalem and yields Kislev 19 rather than Kislev 20 for the 1335th day.
** Found in Ezra 10:1-17 is another great foreshadowing of the coming 1335th day. On Kislev 20, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes, which would be Kislev 20, 457 BC, on the third day from a proclamation in the days of Ezra, which was also the 1335th day from Abib 15, 460 BC, a great assembly took place in Jerusalem. Indeed it had been proclaimed that “whoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the leaders and the elders, all his possessions should be forfeited and he himself excluded from the assembly of the exiles” (Ezra 10:8).
9) Tishri 21, 3024 AD – The millennial kingdom ends
10) Tishri 21, 3053 AD – The eternal stage of the kingdom begins; The day of the Lord ends
The day of the Lord will end and, as did the millennial kingdom, the eternal kingdom of the new heaven and new earth will begin on the final day of the Feast of Booths.
Now on the last day, the great day of the of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink. He who believes in Me, as the Scripture said, ‘From his innermost being will flow rivers of living water.’ ” – John 7:37-38
Compare John 7:37-38; Rev 21:1-7; 22:1-5; 2 Pet 3:10-13
A chronology of the seven days of history:
The new moon of Sept. 4, 3053 at 19:10 UT [E1], past sunset in Jerusalem, gives Tishri 21, 3053 AD, the end of the day of the Lord, as Sept. 24/25, 3053 AD (G). The number of days from March 27, 2021 CE (G) to Sept. 25, 3053 CE (G) is 377,112 [E2], or 377,113, inclusive. 377,113, therefore, is the total number of days in the day of the Lord. Furthermore, given that the day of the Lord is the Sabbath day (compare Heb 4:9; Joel 3:9-21; Is 11:1-10), there should be seven days or 7 x 377,113 + 1* or 2,639,792 days from creation through the end of the day of the Lord. This is consistent with the fact of 2,639,791 days [E2], or 2,639,792 days, inclusive, from the day on which JD 196621.9845 UT (JD 196623.2345 UT [M] – 1.25* **) *** fell, Sunday ****, April 28, 4175 BCE (J) [E2] to Sept. 25, 3053 CE (G).
* It is assumed, from Jos 10:12-13, that, during the time of Joshua (day 3 of history), the sun and moon both stopped “about a whole day.”
** It is assumed that, during one of the days of King Uzziah of Judah, the sun set at noon (compare Amos 1:1 and 8:8-9). To reflect this assumption, an adjustment of about 6 hours, or a quarter of a day is necessary for calculations of new moons which occurred prior to this event.
*** It is assumed that the first day of creation constituted the first day of the first year, the first of Abib, and that, although the moon was not created until the fourth day (Gen 1:14-19), the moon, when created, had a crescent consistent with the fourth day of the
month. Thus, the moon, had it existed on the first day, would have been new.
**** The first day of the world was Sunday, the first day of the week, in accord with Ex 20:8-11, which gives the seventh day of creation week as the Sabbath day (i. e., Saturday, the original Sabbath).
Note: Day 5 began 2 x 377,113 or 754,226 days before the begin- ning of day 7, which is given above as March 26/27, 2021 AD (G). Since March 29, 45 BCE (J) to March 27, 2021 CE (G) is 754,226 days [E2], and given the new moon of March 30, -44 at 20:08 UT [E1], day 5 of history began late in 46 BC, rather than in 45 BC, just before Abib of the new year.
Note: Given 754,226 days [E2], or 2 x 377,113 days, from April 28, 4175 BCE (J) to April 13, 2110 BCE (J), day 3 began on April 12/13, 2110 BC (J). Furthermore, since JD 950833.2173 (JD 950834.4673 M – 1.25) fell on March 29, 2110 BCE (J) [E2], April 12/13, 2110 BC (J) and the beginning of day 3 occurred in the first month, Abib, of the new year, 2110 BC., not at the end of the preceding year, 2111 BC.
Revised July 29, 2015
Title change-April 30, 2016
Credit change – November 27, 2018